In T, adopted the system of rice intensification in recent years and ha, improving yields and this increase has led, lar, in 2014, the production of smallholders and large estates was complemented by, market saturation meant very low prices for farmers and considerable crop wastage, as well. ► We analyzed 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. Future research should therefore focus on assessing the relative performance of both types of agriculture at higher system levels, i.e. These data cover the 2016 major farming season that spanned the period March–August. 2009), a systematic overview of the The aim of this paper is to combine remote sensing data with geo-coded household survey data in order to measure the impact of different socio-economic and biophysical factors on maize yields. livelihoods is currently lacking. on a select number of grain and commodity crops, and excludes attention to fruits, vegetables or livestock as important pieces in the food security puzzle, which as mentioned earlier in reference to post-harv, The aim of closing the yield gap is to meet the food needs of the earth’s population, for off-site and negative impacts of intensification. It is expected that these data, dependent on farmers’ decisions and actions, the lack of infor, perceptions, choices, constraints and decision-making is striking, biggest yield gaps are in developing countries in locations where po, food insecurity are the greatest and arguably where socio-economic constraints ar, Another notable absence in the literature is attention to the potential ecological, impacts of closing the yield gap. and address the long-term impacts of intensification practices is currently lacking. In many parts of Africa, off-farm income opportunities often are pursued instead, of or in addition to farming due to the need for a more reliable and consistent source, of cash, particularly during times of need (such as for paying school fees or medical, costs). interventions would put them at greater risk to variable rainfall. Yield gaps of maize (Zea mays L.) in the smallholder farms of eastern India are outcomes of a complex interplay of climatic variations, soil fertility gradients, socioeconomic factors, and differential management intensities. Private sector Kilombero Plantations Limited claims to ha, thor interviews) in addition to uncalculated losses faced by smallholder farmers who, struggled to sell rice on regional markets. In a New York Times blog, dated June 7th, 2011 – ‘Can the Yield Gap be Closed – Sustainably?’ – Justin Gillis q… Emerging from the literature is also a recognition that in man, ) or switching crops and/or farming systems (Rippke, ADDRESSING WEAKNESSES IN YIELD GAP RESEAR, ) which focussed on yield gap analysis, only one paper (van den Berg and, ) examines trends in the economics of the specific crop in their stud, Apart from neglecting socio-economic and social issues, the GYGA project, despite its, 2 million US$) loss as a result of cheap imports, http://agritrade.cta.int/Agriculture/Commodities/Rice/T, ). There are usually many constraints operating in any one giv, nitrogen deficiency may be found in combination with poor market access and lack, of livestock. There were, at least, 5 counties within each RWS buffer (average of 10 counties per RWS). Our analysis was at field and crop level. We propose that the framework developed can be applied to integrated assessment of other societal challenges where the scientific community can play a significant role in informing policy choices. He singled out environmental differences between experiment station and farmers’ fields but also, in the second gap, pointed to biological and social-economic constraints. Put simply, found that farmers recognize and value a host of ecosystem services in their, agricultural landscapes, but ranked profitability as a key factor in the adoption, management practices, their research found tha, ecosystem services in agriculture will require incentives’ (R, This conclusion echoes findings in other fields and sectors (forestry, a promising mechanism for changing management practices, requires someone or some institution willing to pay, 2400 households in Michigan revealed respondents’ willingness to pay farmers to, adopt practices to address, in particular, he sees as the difference between ‘sustainable intensification’ and wha, ‘ecological intensification’. Yield under optimum management is labelled as potential yield under fully irrigated conditions or water-limited yield under rainfed conditions (Evans, 1998, Van Ittersum and Rabbinge, 1997). Addressing post-harvest waste and distrib, ) call for managing agricultural landscapes, ) that argue incentives like payments for ecosystem services are necessary and, ) echoes this ecosystem approach to agricultural landscapes in what, ) points out that whilst agroecology and organic agriculture have been around, ). resources become increasingly valuable, and therefore contested. Indeed, early attention to the subject can be, traced to Gomez’ work in 1977 and continues in fits and starts to the present day, What supports this revitalization of the yield gap and gives it renew, is the ever present narrative of ‘how will w, consulting the references of papers that are widely cited on the topic and written, my scientists known for the work on the topic. Mind the (yield) gap(s). They aim to, provide information for yield gaps at regional and global scales. T, focussed on specific field crops, and to dev, parts of complex landscapes, including cropped and non-cr, This work on agricultural landscapes also incorporated research on farmer, practices and factors influencing their decisions about land use. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the factors underpinning these yield levels is key to improving them. We discuss our findings in the context of the literature on this subject and address the issue of upscaling our results to higher system levels. the breadth and variety of definitions across disciplines. We argue that this definition is inadequate to merit the term "sustainable", because it lacks engagement with established principles that are central to sustainability. Empirical scientific evidence indicates that there is still room for increasing food production by improving land productivity. The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture. Upscaled to the NC USA region, yield potential was 4.8 Mg ha−1 (rainfed) and 5.7 Mg ha−1 (irrigated), with a respective yield gap of 22 and 13% of yield potential. Based on the fact that the biggest share of workers in agriculture in Uganda are women (FAO, 2011), closing the gender yield gaps will unlock the agricultural potential of women in Uganda and thereby advance food security and sustainable human development. Yet even crop-specific yield gaps varied noticeably by location. This de-agrarianization, quality inputs that are available and affor. This study aimed at identifying the key determinants that govern farmers’ decisions to adopt multiple components of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) in a maize mixed cropping system of the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa. To examine this renewed interest, we carried out a review of key literature in the field of yield gap analysis to identify important gaps in research and analysis. The challenge is, however, great. Sumberg, J. Our analysis shows that an, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. These appr, whilst furthering understanding at a much larger scale, of global scale analyses which draw upon these methods noting the following. elements explored in these papers (Baldos and Hertel, Areas left underexplored in this literature ar, decisions such as risk aversion, opportunity costs, seasonal and permanent out-. while improving or at least stabilizing yields (The Royal The Yield Gap is the difference between the yields of government-issued securities Bond Issuers There are different types of bond issuers. Soil fertility status was assessed in 180 farms and paired with the surveyed data on maize yield, socioeconomic conditions, and agronomic management. There is no revolutionary alternative. This paper highlights, some of the findings from this review and outline areas of resear, critical if yield gaps are to be better understood, but more importantly addressed, Yield gaps are only important insofar as they r, scope for addressing the issue of agricultural productivity with a much wider lens that, will include both attention to the social, economic and political context, the possible, ecological impacts of increasing productivity, should be examined with a critical eye as the, paper on yield gaps points out, ‘[M]aking progress on food security requires more, than a biological view’ because yields ‘are an object of choice for farmers’ (Beddow, The yield gap concept is useful to government planners, implementers, crop, breeders, agronomists and the private sector in particular because it informs estimates, top-down interventions and the technologies and inputs they r, to a narrow approach that fails to address the wider conte, yields such as market access, consumer tastes, trade policies, produced on experiment stations and actual farm yields. Definitions of Yield Gap © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. 3. effects of agroecological practices on socio-economic T, agronomists, soil scientists and crop physiologists m, better understanding of a wide variety of social, economic and biophysical trade-offs, beyond the farm can be incorporated. Constraints to High Yields, on Asian Rice Farms. increase of approximately 25%–70% above current production levels may be sufficient to meet 2050 crop demand. We find grounds for reconciling these two points of view when we draw a distinction between different measures of productivity growth. 2013), are considerable, but agronomic nutrient use efficiencies (an element of resource use efficiency) are sometimes extremely low (Spiertz 2012). If we accept that farmers can sustainably achieve a relative yield of 80%, as was demonstrated by leading farmers in the Wimmera and Mallee (van Rees et al. How, remain in yield gap research and there are implications of using the yield gap to, address food security that are not well explored in the literatur, that addresses yield gaps must first identify the underlying constraints to agricultural, production which include a wide range of biophysical to social, economic and political, factors. demotivate farmers from increasing production of particular crops. This integration is no small task, and indeed, willingness to collaborate is often met with institutional and funding barriers against, equity and ecosystem benefits is to be realized, such inv, for presentation at the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association’s 2012 AAEA Annual Meeting. For most crops, however, transformation is limited to small pockets (<15% of area), and only for beans, maize and banana is transformation more widespread (similar to 30% area for maize and banana, 60% for beans). Understanding farmers’ choices and decisions is rarely tackled in, ) early definition focussed on the difference observed between yields, ) argued can lead to inconsistencies in analyses, ) added another dimension to yield potential, that of, ) and differentiated between irrigated and, ). Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Handling Practices (GHP) are voluntary audits that verify that fruits and vegetables are produced, packed, handled, and stored as safely as possible to minimize risks of microbial food safety hazards. management approaches to agricultural intensification, this situation may become more acute as natural potential trade-offs around production/conservation. In low-income countries, loss of f, ). and the wider food system (FAO, 2015). While the potential to invest in smallholder irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa is large (Xie et al., 2014) most farmers are unlikely to immediately adopt irrigation due to a range of social, economic and environmental constraints (e.g. The yield gap in relation to agronomic potential is an important element when discussing agronomic potentials for yield growth. That term is used to describe the enormous gulf between the crop yields obtained by the most successful farmers and the least … However, little attention has been paid to the timing of these transformations. Yield gaps result from shortfalls in the crop growth environment that are not resolved by current agricultural management practices. Lack of institutions for collective management of natural resources, such as water, further restricts The present study shows that socioeconomic factors that are often not considered in crop yield analyses—land tenure and labour availability—often underpin poor crop yields in such smallholder rainfed family farms. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2011.12.004. Other statistically significant yield determinants include level of inorganic fertiliser applied, soil penetrability and phosphorus content, weed control and labour availability. others, that the current model for agricultural intensification, of which the yield gap, focus can be seen to be a part, is not sustainable socially or ecologically: ‘it is neither, ecological nor eco-efficient, it is ineffective at feeding the world, it is harmful for the, There is a growing number of researchers calling for a r, for technological solutions to more holistic ones that consider the wider ecological, for multiple ecosystem services. For some types of crops, the researchers found no gap at all. While livelihood outcomes of hybrid seed adoption include increased maize yields, local farmers highlight numerous drawbacks, including unstable input prices, limited storage periods, pest concerns, and the increased reliance on cash. This relates in particular to the role of legumes in the rotation and the farming system, … This approach relies on IAP’s membership of over 130 science academies grouped in four regional networks for Africa, America, Asia and Europe. Gomez (, types, the gap between experiment station and farmers’ fields and the gap between, between experiment station and farmers’ fields but also, in the second gap, pointed to, biological and social-economic constraints. Burke et al. Critiquing food security definitions and policy implications for ethnic minority livelihoods in upland Vietnam, Timescales of transformational climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan African agriculture, Yield gap analysis: implications for research and policies on food security, The resource outlook to 2050. by how much do land, water use and crop yields need to increase by 2050, Farming the planet. systems, including conventional management, and included long-term observations and experiments. The concept of yield itself has generated a number of conceptual difficulties as, different authors and disciplines use the terminolog. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. for ethnic minority livelihoods in upland Vietnam. We aim to rebalance this narrative by laying out quantitative and compelling midcentury targets for both production and the environment. A key issue in the debate on the contribution of organic agriculture to the future of world agriculture is whether organic agriculture can produce sufficient food to feed the world. (2009). We hypothesize that due to challenges in the maintenance of nutrient availability in organic systems at crop rotation, farm and regional level, the average yield gap between conventional and organic systems may be larger than 20% at higher system levels. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield. Is rainfed agriculture really a pathway fr. Yield gap is used to describe the huge gulf between the crop yields of the world’s most productive farmers and the least successful ones. Society needs greater recognition of the food-supply problem and must increase funding and support for agricultural research while it attends to issues of food waste and overconsumption that can make valuable reductions to food demand from agriculture. addressed by transitioning to regenerative systems of Understanding the maximum farm yield potentials can also be obtained, through gathering historical data from farmers. Tittonell, for a long time, much of the funding and support f, time….technologies are developed elsewhere and farmers have to “adopt” them’, intensification, a radical shift in actual implementation that not only addresses the, agriculture as greater profits can be realized. Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management. Ecological intensification includes a variety of paradigms, (permaculture, agroecology) that have a very different appr, impact of the wider natural environment on agriculture and vice versa. In Laos, the government has placed considerable emphasis on increasing rice, and preferences for how to allocate labour, economic factors affecting farmer decisions, the diversity of farmer, in the highlands in the north. Kravchenko’s team found a number of factors that influenced the yield gap between experimental plots and commercial fields. We draw on seven years of panel data on African smallholders, drawn from three rounds of data collection over a twelve-year period and 56 villages in six countries combined with a time-series analysis of NDVI data from the MODIS sensor. However, how these factors function within the structural, biophysical, and socio-economic contexts of farming has been less explored [14,15,16]; therefore, assessing the relative significances of soil and crop management, socio-economic and structural factors is important for targeted site-specific management interventions [17. Wider consideration of issues related to equitable distribution of food and individual empowerment in the intensification decision process (distributive and procedural justice) is needed to put meaning back into the term "sustainable intensification". The critical period is 20 d before to 30 d after anthesis. Here, there are two distinct ‘camps’: one focusing on slowing yield growth to paint a relatively pessimistic picture, and one focusing on strong growth in total factor productivity (TFP) in order to find grounds for optimism in feeding the world in 2050. The yield gap is hardly a new concern in agronomy, ecology or agricultural economics. In common agricultural practice, yield gaps, differences between theoretical yield levels and actual farmers’ yield (Van Ittersum et al. For example, American farmers typically grow up to five times as much corn per acre as their counterparts do in Africa. Yields on farmers’ fields are part of a farm and wider landscape system that, complicate both the measurement and understanding of yield gaps, but also the, constraints that underlie them and shape farmers’ decisions and ability to increase, is rarely a feature in the yield gap literature, to raise productivity and thus address food security, understand and address this wider landscape. Timescales of transformational climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan African. The yield gaps caused by crop management were mainly concentrated in South-central Brazil. In light of human population growth, global food security is an escalating concern. 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And African farming systems in Uganda ’ yield (, economically attainable.... The sources of income supports co‐adoption of inorganic fertilizer, residue incorporation, and crop rotation, both!
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