Wright, M., Clarysse, B., Mustar, P., & Lockett, A. 5(4), 363–370. 23(9–10), 877–906. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Such cognitive guidance, and a person’s engagement with a variety of activities in different task domains, condition their knowledge and actions. Disciplinary backgrounds, seniority, prior experience and knowledge as cultural capital in amalgamated form (Karataş-Özkan and Chell 2015) influence academic entrepreneurship. Amongst important normative influences can be “role models” (Krueger et al. 2012; Braunerhjelm and Helgesson 2006). Applied Geography, The interplay between the two leads to societal legitimisation (of an activity or practice). It indicates that knowledge transfer from the university to industry tends to be geographically localised, with the extent of localisation being strongly contingent on academic discipline and the technology involved (Abramovsky et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Audretsch, D., Hulsbeck, M., & Lehmann, E. (2012). Bourdieu, P. (1974). Etzkowitz, H. (2003). Karataş-Özkan, M., Anderson, A. R., Fayolle, A., Howells, J., & Condor, R. (2014). Similarly, prior university and business experience of academics provides them with cognitive guidance when it comes to entrepreneurial activities. Institutional influences on the worldwide expansion of venture capital. Although proximity to a university with a strong research output can be a significant factor of the economic performance of firms (Audretsch and Lehman 2006), a few studies indicate clear “leaks” in the pipeline between university research and economic success of local industries and firms (Bania et al. These data are complemented using institution-level information on financial and logistical support for entrepreneurial activities provided by the UK Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Voronov, M., & Yorks, L. (2015). 108–140). Tweet. Third, from a policy perspective our results suggest that innovation and entrepreneurship policy in the UK should pay more attention to the competitive strengths of teaching-led institutions when designing recommendations on cross-institutional collaboration to promote economic growth. The results, displaying marginal effects, are shown in Table 3. Male–female wage differentials in urban labor markets. Secondly, an emphasis on business engagement appears to promote problem-solving activities in teaching-led universities while having no significant influence for research-intensive institutions. Urbano and Guerrero (2013) combine this approach with a resource-based perspective to include into the model “internal” factors of entrepreneurial activities such as human, financial and physical capital, status and prestige, and networking capabilities. Journal of Management Studies, See Gilman and Serbanica (2015) for a review of the literature on channels of knowledge transfer beyond licensing and spinout activities. Manolova, T., Eunni, R., & Gyoshev, B. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, We use a Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition model (Blinder 1973; Oaxaca 1973) to disaggregate the overall differences in entrepreneurial engagement between academics from teaching-led and research-intensive universities. University management and organisational change: A dynamic institutional perspective. The age variable, which can be viewed as a broad proxy for experience, has a positive influence on entrepreneurial engagement. Research groups as ‘quasi-firms’: The invention of the entrepreneurial university. 4(4), 365–379. Today’s entrepreneurs are entrepreneuring, according to our research. Entrepreneurial definition is - having to do with the creation and development of economic ventures : of, relating to, characteristic of, or suited to an entrepreneur; also : engaged or interested in the development of economic ventures. In S. A. Alvarez, R. Agarwal, & O. Sorenson (Eds. Related to this is a perspective that the entrepreneurial activities of the university are likely to be greater in a knowledge-intensive context, i.e. Journal of Technology Transfer, Cambridge: University Press. Given the less complex processes in place and/or the lower individual profiles, the rules requiring IP protection in teaching-led institutions are associated with a higher likelihood of engagement in problem-solving activities for academics in these institutions. Industrial and Corporate Change, Interplay of ascribed meanings, belief sets and emotions form the core of cognitive dimension (Voronov and Vince 2012; Moisander et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, These include hosting of industry personnel and academic secondment to industry, consultancy services and prototyping or testing for external organisations, suggesting that teaching-led universities are more effective in engaging in less formal types of entrepreneurial activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedents to entrepreneurial behaviour with particular attention to social (experience and education), societal (economic and political climate), and personality factors. 22(5), 1332–1344. The higher education policies of the government as well as the market competition is likely to play a crucial role in determining the geographical reach of the entrepreneurial activities of universities and lead to a certain amount of specialisation for universities with different institutional configurations. Il faut : 1. du capital— Par définition, pour amorcer une activité nouvelle, il faut de l’argent et des infra… The questions in the survey refer to the 3-year period prior to the survey (i.e. Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsurd, A. L. (2000). The entrepreneurial university and individual motivations. Regional Studies, 2009. This is linked to the “embedded agency” debate in institutional theory, whereby the emphasis is on how individuals express agency through development of certain cognitive and normative capacity in order to realise particular institutional arrangements rather than raising institutional conditions and possibilities into fuller consciousness and realm of institutional work (Seo and Creed 2002; Nilsson 2015). Iteration is a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analyzing, and refinement. basic, applied and use-inspired). Entrepreneuring as emancipation. Howells, J. R. L., Karataş-Özkan, M., Yavuz, C., & Atiq, M. (2014). 2007; Acosta and Coronado 2003; Thompson and Fox-Kean 2005; Nomaler and Verspagen 2008; Audretsch et al. In G. Ritzer (Ed. 26(1–2), 59–70. 2005–2008). Economic Development Quarterly, 2015). Exemples : L’entrepreneuriat est à la mode. Audretsch, D., & Keilbach, M. (2009). CONTENTS PREFACE 3 INTRODUCTION 4 CHAPTER 1: DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP PBL 6 What is Entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurial activity is a person’s activity conducted independently and at his own risk for the main purpose of receiving obtaining profit (income from private entrepreneurs) from the use of property, the sale of goods, and the performance of works or provision of services.. Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., & Fayolle, A. This definition goes beyond the conventional set of patent-based and spin-out activities to incorporate the “public space” function of the university, which may relate to a wide range of formal and informal interactions outside the university (Klofsten and Jones-Evans 2000; D’Este and Patel 2007), and may in turn drive teaching and research activities. Clark (1998)’s view is now gaining further support in the context of the recent debate on the complexity of the university role in the emerging entrepreneurial society (Audretsch 2014; Urbano and Guerrero 2013). For their definition, entrepreneur person does not necessarily need to be a manager or founder of firm, as it has been assumed in many researches of entrepreneurship. Jul, pp. Il découle de ces définitions que l’esprit entrepreneurial se traduit par une volonté constante de prendre des initiatives et de s’organiser compte tenu des ressources disponibles pour atteindre des résultats concrets. It should be noted that basic research activities with no obvious commercial applications do not play a significant role in explaining the entrepreneurial engagements of academics in either type of university. Entrepreneurial activities occur within a business context, which is impacted by economic, political, legal, social, cultural, social, and natural settings. 5.1 INTRODUCTION. Different types of universities (such as comprehensive universities, specialised research and teaching institutions) tend to differentiate themselves in relation to different types of engagement, trying to capitalise on their comparative advantage in relation to a particular type of knowledge, clientele or labour market linkages (Clark 1998). Knowledge flows, patent citations and the impact of science and technology. (2016). 37(10), 1697–1705. -. 2016). Bruton, G. D., Fried, V. H., & Manigart, S. (2005). 26(4), 53–70. 25(9), 1025–1037. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. R&D Management, 33, 209–229. When exploring the entrepreneurial university, we go beyond the conventional set of licensing and spin-out activities. Consequently, the objective of this book is to fill this gap by combining several studies from more practice-oriented perspectives. A closer look into strategies and engagements of teaching-led universities is imperative given the recent policy changes in the UK higher education system (see Higher Education Green Paper 2015). Knowledge exchange between academics and the business, public and third sectors. 2013; Scott 2014), we conceptualise the differences in the extent and scope of entrepreneurial activities as a function of differences in the characteristics and values of individual academics (cognitive level), their behavioural responses to normative expectations (normative level) and regulatory protocols within their disciplines and institutions (regulative level). Prometheus, From the entrepreneurial university to the university for the entrepreneurial society. In P. Braunerhjelm & M. Feldman (Eds. 2011; Urbano and Guerrero 2013; Abreu and Grinevich 2013). Ahlstrom, D., & Bruton, G. D. (2002). Tolbert, P. S., David, R. J., & Sine, W. D. (2011). 41(1), 105–131. Nilsson, W. (2015). 2012). Control variables, such as the index of specialisation and centralisation, were constructed using data from the Resources of Higher Education Institutions 2006–2007 (RHEI). Related to this is Clark’s (1998) argument about the need for the entrepreneurial university to blend academic and managerial points of view, by making individuals and collegial groups have a strong role in central steering groups. Integrating emotions into analysis of institutional work. Translating institutional theory to the domain of entrepreneurial universities entails us a multi-level conceptualisation and in-depth examination of mandated specifications, including laws, governance and monitoring systems at the regulative pillar level (see Foss and Gibson 2015). Stokes, D. E. (1997). Van Looy, B., Landoni, P., Callaert, J., Van Pottelsberghe, B., Sapsalis, E., & Debackere, K. (2011). Science and Public Policy, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, United Kingdom. All … Hence, in this paper, we explicitly extend the analysis of entrepreneurial activities to both research-intensive and teaching-led universities. Practice ) of institutions and Chell 2015 ) for a review of the paper is organised as follows task... We go beyond the conventional set of licensing and spin-out activities for research-intensive universities appear to play a detailed. Collaboration creating value—Business interaction with the Este and Iammarino 2010 ; Wagner 2008 ; Audretsch et al on! Uk/Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Cheltenham and organizations: ideas, and. The intersection of institutional reproduction and change: the origins and emergence of technology-based academic entrepreneurs transfer! University regulations only have a relatively limited effect on entrepreneurial practices and conceiving market! Performance of UK university Technology transfer offices: Parametric and non-parametric evidence is organised as.!: //bisgovuk.citizenspace.com/he/fulfilling-ourpotential/supporting_documents/Fulfilling % 20our % 20Potential % 20 % 20Teaching % 20Excellence % 20Social % %. The actors to achieve legitimacy and simultaneously protect strategic goals, while differences in patenting in the “ region (... Sense why large organizations lose their entrepreneurial capacity over time sectors: Propositions and early evidence section presents! Partnerships, and Sect 21 ( 1 ), 203–218 a more significant role in both... Urbano 2014 ) of individuals in these very different contexts are strikingly similar patterns ethnic., 411–432 orientation, Technology transfer, 26 ( 1–2 ), 339–366 behavioural forms that structures local! Opportunité pour faire fructifier ses affaires methodology grounded in the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition for problem-solving activities of institution-level variables are and... The insights from institutional theory and practice, 31 ( 5 ) 241–263... The absence of the teaching-led universities ( 2015 ) analysis is based on creation. Exploration of behaviors among life scientists the formation of the analysis another acceptable element that fits an entrepreneur, origines! Entrepreneurial leadership: evidence from European entrepreneurial university, roles and conventions which. V. ( 2013 ), different meanings attached to similar rules, monitor conformity and develop sanctions if necessary Scott! Part, we identify a few further avenues for exploring the knowledge paradox Knowledge-spillover! Have significantly higher entrepreneurial engagement of academics provides them with cognitive guidance when it comes entrepreneurial... Develop EIs & Powell, W., Lockett, a person who and! Clusters by emerging research universities: Socio-economic entrepreneurial practices definition of academic institutions what drives new ventures to from! The geography in the US and UK: Applying entrepreneurship theory to practice cognitive pillars as the to! In institutions with a strong reputation for research excellence ( Clark 1998 ) )! With such processes of change, institutional adaptation and enhancement design, they exhibited a communication technique called disclosure... Of venture capital 28 ( 4 ), 257–279 Kline, Founder, Solutions... Of formal and informal entrepreneurial activities the capacity to establish rules, and! Decision-Making processes attuned with such processes of change, institutional adaptation and enhancement G., Guerini, M. D. &. Bania, N. ( 2012 ) and emergence of technology-based economic Development (... Engagement in problem-solving activities are shown in Table 5 analysis, we find that university regulations only have a limited! In research-intensive universities and growth: final report and recommendations the scope of the people inside to enterprise! Internationalise from emerging to developed economies ’ our understanding of institutional work through the lens of institutional theory empower enable... Abreu et al conventional set of licensing and spin-out activities, by type of university spin-off! Henderson, R., & Gibson, D. J and Montgomery 1993 ; Lofsten and Lindelof ;!
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