One of his successors, Gregory Taronites, also rebelled with the aid of the Sultan of Cappadocia, but he was defeated and imprisoned, only to be made governor once more. Alexios later declared himself Emperor and established himself in Trebizond (modern day Trabzon, Turkey). The deposed Emperor Michael was exiled to Constantinople, and on September 20, 1351, Alexios III married Theodora Kantakouzene, a relative of the Byzantine Emperor, in the newly rebuilt Church of St. Eugenios. Nevertheless, Gabras proved himself a worthy guardian by repelling a Georgian attack on Trebizond. Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios II Megas Komnēnos, Sept./Dec. When Alexios III died on March 20 1390, he was succeeded by his son Manuel III. Perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. He was the son of Emperor Alexios III of Trebizond by… … Wikipedia, Andronikos III of Trebizond — Andronikos III Megas Komnenos or Andronicus III (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Andronikos III Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1310 ndash; 1332) Emperor of Trebizond from 1330 to 1332. In 1364 he confirmed to the Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a depot. The second son of Alexios I, Manuel I (1238–1263), preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander. Discussion that several authorities consider Alexios II's reign to be the height of Trapezuntine power. When he was eleven years old, he was sent to Trebizond by Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos to replace his deposed great-uncle Michael, who had been an instrument of the regency Kantakouzenos had displaced. Whilst the Empire of Nicaea had restored the Byzantine Empire through restoring control of the capital, it ended in 1453 with the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. , In Italian, there exists the expression "to lose the Trebizond" (perdere la Trebisonda) which means "to be bewildered". Nevertheless, Alexios' attempt to exploit the commerce of the Italian republics resulted in considerable resentment. Possibly the diocese of Cerasous was deactivated for the same reasons. He was the eldest son of Manuel Komnenos and of Rusudan … Wikipedia, Alexios III — There have been two rulers called Alexios III:* Alexios III Angelos, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire * Alexios III Megas Komenos, Emperor of Trebizond … Wikipedia, Manuel III of Trebizond — Manuel III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl III Megas Komnēnos) (December 16, 1364 – March 5, 1417) was Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417. ", The last years of the fourteenth century were characterized by the increasing Turkish threat. Rabelais had his character Picrochole, the ruler of Piedmont, declare: "I want also to be Emperor of Trebizond."  He was the first ruler to issue silver coins, which were known as aspers. , In the relatively limited territory of the kingdom of the Grand Komnenoi (known as the “Empire of Trebizond”) there was enough room for three dioceses: Trebizond, which was the only diocese established far in the past, Cerasous and Rizaion in Lazika, both formed as upgraded bishoprics. 1282 – 3 May 1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330.  This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and coastal parts of Artvin. In addition, the Black Death spread from Caffa to ravage Trebizond and other Pontic cities. The position of Venice had declined from the concession of Leontokastron to the Genoese in 1349, and in 1360 Alexios attempted to restore commercial relations with Venice to offset the power of the Genoese. Alexios III was originally named John (Ιωάννης, "Iōannēs"), and took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest among the Byzantine successor states. ", Vasiliev points out that the brothers occupied Trebizond too early to have done so in response to the Crusaders capturing Constantinople; Alexios and David began their march on Trebizond before news of the sack of Constantinople on 13 April 1204 could reach either Trebizond or Georgia.  A Genoese document records the seizure of one of their ships at that port in 1437 by a military Galley on the orders of Emperor John IV. , The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. " Its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the polity. Trebizond enjoyed a period of wealth and influence during the long reign of John's eldest son Alexios II (1297–1330). The rebels realized that they would be unable to win and abandoned their expedition. Manuel III (1390–1417), the second son and successor of Alexios III, had allied himself with Tamerlane, but the mighty conqueror soon left Anatolia, and the empire he had built crumbled with his death. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. By his wife Theodora Kantakouzene, Alexios III had six children:* Basil (1358–1377)* Manuel III (1364–1417), Emperor 1390–1416* Eudokia, who married first Tajeddin, Emir of Limnia and then the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš* Maria, who married Suleyman Beg, Emir of Chalybia, * Unnamed daughter, who married Mutahharten, Emir of Erzincan* Anna, who married King Bagrat V of Georgia, By an unnamed mistress, Alexios also had at least two illegitimate sons: * Andronikos (1355–1376), who married Gulkhan-Eudokia, daughter of King David IX of Georgia, but was murdered shortly after and Eudokia married his brother, Manuel III* John. He ascended the throne at the age of 14 after the death of his father. He gave his daughter Theodora (also known by the name of Despina Khatun) to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. It maintained its position as a major trade center and the wealth that came along with it. Alexios and his brother, David, ended up at the court of Queen Tamar of Georgia, who gave them military support to return to Byzantine territory. Geography also defined the southern border of this state: the Pontic Alps served as a barrier first to Seljuk Turks and later to Turkoman marauders, whose predations were reduced to a volume that the emperors could cope with. In this he was less successful, and suffered a major defeat in battle in 1355.  While Michel Kurskanskis has argued in support of Vasiliev's interpretation, he disagrees with Vasiliev over the intent of Tamar's intervention: Vasiliev has argued that the Queen intended to create a buffer state to protect the Georgian Kingdom, while Kurskanskis believes she supported the brothers in their attempt to reclaim the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. E.S. The Grand Duke was forced to flee to Kerasous in June 1354 and attempted an attack on Trebizond in March 1355.  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